About the Author(s)

Ghanmi Marwa Email symbol
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine of Monastir, University Hospital Sahlou, Sousse, Tunisia

Sahbi Mtawaa symbol
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine of Sousse, University Hospital of Kairouan, Kairouan, Tunisia

Emna Toulgui symbol
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine of Sousse, University Hospital of Sahloul, Sousse, Tunisia

Rihab Moncer symbol
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine of Sousse, University Hospital of Sahloul, Sousse, Tunisia

Walid Wannes symbol
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine of Sousse, University Hospital of Sahloul, Sousse, Tunisia

Khaled Maaref symbol
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine of Sousse, University Hospital of Sahloul, Sousse, Tunisia

Sonia Jemni symbol
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine of Sousse, University Hospital of Sahloul, Sousse, Tunisia


Marwa, G., Mtawaa, S., Toulgui, E., Moncer, R., Wannes, W., Maaref, K. et al., 2022, ‘Quality of life and its predicting factors for Tunisian children with cerebral palsy’, African Journal of Disability 11(0), a1046. https://doi.org/10.4102/ajod.v11i0.1046

Original Research

Quality of life and its predicting factors for Tunisian children with cerebral palsy

Ghanmi Marwa, Sahbi Mtawaa, Emna Toulgui, Rihab Moncer, Walid Wannes, Khaled Maaref, Sonia Jemni

Received: 24 Mar. 2022; Accepted: 07 Aug. 2022; Published: 15 Dec. 2022

Copyright: © 2022. The Author(s). Licensee: AOSIS.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) can cause motor, sensory, perceptual, cognitive, communication and behavioural disorders. The complexity of this condition justifies measuring the quality of life (QOL) of children with CP. This measurement depends on personal and socio-economic factors, hence the relevance of performing it in our cultural context of Tunisia.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the QOL of Tunisian children with CP and to identify predictive factors for QOL.

Method: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire (the CP QOL-Child) was employed. It included 68 children with CP and their parents who consulted the outpatient clinics of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of the University Hospital of Sahloul Sousse.

Results: The QOL of children with CP was altered, and the mean total score for the CP QOL-Child was 59.3 (± 14). All domains were affected by this alteration. Six predictive factors for lowered QOL in children with CP were identified, namely age older than 6 years, swallowing disorders, more intense chronic pain, greater level of motor impairment, the use of botulinum toxin injection and the absence of verbal communication.

Conclusion: Intervention with children with CP must be mindful of their altered QOL. Five out of the six predictive factors of QOL are modifiable through a multidisciplinary approach within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

Contribution: The multiplicity of the factors associated with QOL revealed by this study incites clinicians to adopt the ICF approach by displaying its practical implications on the efficiency of the medical intervention.

Keywords: cerebral palsy; quality of life; CP QOL-Child questionnaire; child; ICF.


Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a group of pathologies secondary to a non-progressive injury of the developing central nervous system occurring in a child under three years of age. This injury can cause motor disorders often associated with sensory, perceptive, cognitive, communication and behaviour disorders, epilepsy and secondary musculoskeletal problems (Rosenbaum et al. 2007). It is the most common cause of disability in children in developed countries with a prevalence range from 1.4 to 2.1/1000 live births (Galea et al. 2019).

Results from developing countries are divergent but an overall higher prevalence ranging from 3.4 to 4.1/1000 live births is reported (Gladstone 2010; Serdarog 2006). Data concerning prevalence of CP in Tunisia is unknown because of the lack of a dedicated register. Cerebral palsy can cause functional deficits and the inability to perform daily-life activities, which, as a result, compromise functional independence, participation in social life and quality of life (QOL). In 2006, Varni conducted a study comparing QOL measured by a generic self-administered questionnaire, in children diagnosed with multiple chronic conditions (10 chronic conditions, 33 categories according to severity) and children in good apparent health. The most altered QOL was found in children with CP (Varni et al. 2006).

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) offers a more comprehensive and standardised approach to study the impact of disabling diseases, such as CP, on functioning (Meucci et al. 2014) by integrating the bio-psycho-social dimensions into the management strategy. This classification has also identified the concept of QOL as the main objective of all therapeutic interventions. The study of QOL of patients has thus gradually become an important measure to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for children with CP (Maenner et al. 2016).

As defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), QOL is the individual’s perception of their place in life, in the context of their cultural and value system and in relation to their proper goals and concerns (Kuyken et al. 1995). Therefore, the measurement of QOL must include the opinions and perceptions of patients and their families. Then, it must be based on the use of standardised and validated questionnaires. Among the most used, are the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire for Children (CP -QOL-Child) (Waters et al. 2009), the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) (Schneider et al. 2007) and the European generic health-related QOL questionnaire (KIDSCREEN) (Ravens-Sieberer et al. 2005). Others are less used, such as the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (Varni et al. 2006) and the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (Narayanan et al. 2006). Cerebral palsy Quality of Life-Child was selected by a systematic review of the literature published in 2014 as the most appropriate measurement instrument that takes into account all the characteristics of CP while representing the concepts of the ICF (Schiariti et al. 2014). The strength of CP QOL-Child is shown through its design, which took into account the perceptions and experiences of children with CP and their families (Waters et al. 2006). Indeed, many researchers consider the CP QOL-Child to be the gold standard for this evaluation (Davis et al. 2010). The CP QOL-Child was validated through extensive research with good test–retest reliability, construct validity and internal consistency (Waters et al. 2006). This instrument was also translated and validated in Arabic with excellent test–retest reliability, good internal consistency, an intraclass coefficient between 0.88 and 0.97 and a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, which exceeds 0.7 (El-Weshahi et al. 2017). The starting age of 4 years was chosen because it is the ideal age for CP diagnosis. Children over 12 years old were not included as it is possible that new issues, such as body image, pressure from school and employment, will arise during adolescence.

The main objective of this study is to assess the QOL of children with CP by the CP QOL-Child questionnaire and to determine predictive factors for lowered QOL.

Research methods and design

Study design

This study employed a cross-sectional design commonly used to investigate associations between risk factors and the outcome that is QOL. This design is useful for public health issues such as CP and for the generation of hypotheses but it is limited in time (Wang & Cheng 2020).


Data collection took place in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation outpatient clinics of the University Hospital of Sahloul, Sousse between 01 September 2019 and 31 March 2020. Parents taking care of these children were also included. There are only six outpatient clinics for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in Tunisia. Those of the University Hospital of Sahloul receive patients from all over the centre and the east region of the country.

Study population

All the children with CP, aged from 4 to 12 years old and their parents were included. However, those who were also diagnosed with genetic syndromes, heart disease, diabetes or cancer and those with acute traumatic or infectious disease were excluded. Also, parents who refused to answer the questionnaire and those who did not have verbal or written skills in Arabic to complete the measuring instruments and the consent form were excluded.

Among the 123 children who presented with CP and their parents during the data collection period, of which 68 were included in this study.

Data collection

Within the framework of the ICF, a trained physiatrist collected information about age, gender, patient history (comorbidities, medical and surgical neuro-orthopaedic interventions), socioeconomic status (household area, the parents’ level of education, the parents’ profession, monthly income, health insurance, the number of siblings, if they had a sibling with disability), type of school the child attends (kindergarten, mainstream school, school for learners with special educational needs).

Then, he conducted a physical examination including a neurological, neurosensory and neuromotor assessment, an algo-functional assessment by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Gross Motor Function Scale (GMFCS) and a psychological assessment using self-administered questionnaires (Hariz et al. 2013; Pashmdarfard et al. 2017; Suleiman, Hadid & Duhni 2012):

  • the Child Depression Rating Score (CDRS)
  • the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorder (SCARED) in its Arabic version for anxiety and
  • the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in its Arabic version for the subjective assessment of sleep quality.

Quality of life was measured using the CP QOL-Child. It assesses seven areas of QOL, namely ‘social well-being and acceptance’ (SWA); ‘feelings about functioning’ (FAF); ‘participation and physical health’ (PHP); ‘emotional well-being and self-esteem’ (EWS); ‘access to services’ (AS); ‘pain and impact of disability’ (PID) and ‘family health’ (FH).

Cerebral palsy Quality of Life-Child is made of two versions to be used together when possible: the proxy reported version containing 66 items, and the self-administered version containing 52 items. The self-administered version was used according to the manual of instructions in children with CP aged between 9 and 12 years old and having preserved intellectual level and verbal communication. Where the use of both versions was possible, the scores of the two versions for each domain were averaged and used in the analytical study (Waters, Boyd & Reddihough 2013).

Definitions of variables
  • Monthly household income: A monthly household income of less than 1000 Tunisian Dinars was considered low, moderate when between 1000 and 1400 Dinars and good when above 1400 Dinars.
  • Intensity of chronic pain: In accordance with the recommendations of the High Authority for Health, the patient’s pain was considered weak for a VAS between one and three, moderate when it is between four and five, intense between six and seven and unbearable for a VAS greater than or equal to eight.
  • Anxiety disorder: It was diagnosed for a SCARED score > 25.
  • Clinical depression: It was defined by a CDRS score Greater than or equal to 30.
  • Sleep disorder: It was retained with a PSQI score > 5.
  • Motor function impairment: It was defined functionally by the GMFCS classification system.
  • Quality of life scoring: The response to each question was converted into a percentage varying from 0 to 100 according to the coding algorithm (Waters et al. 2013). One hundred corresponding to the highest possible QOL according to the child with CP and or the parent included. Then, the average of the percentages of the predefined responses for each domain was calculated. Seven averages of percentages varying from 0 to 100 were thus obtained. The CP QOL-Child total score (CP-QOL total) is the average of the seven domains. The higher the CP-QOL total, the better the QOL.
Data analysis

The collected data were saved and analysed using SPSS version 22 ‘Statistical Package for Social Sciences’ software. Qualitative variables were described by counts and percentages. Quantitative variables with normal distribution were described as means and standard deviations, those with non-normal distribution were described as medians with interquartile ranges. The association between QOL and 44 elements the ICF was analysed. Comparisons of two means were made using Student’s t-test for independent samples. Comparisons of multiple means were made using the ANOVA test. To determine the predictive factors of CP QOL-Child score, a multiple linear regression was performed. The normal distribution of this score was checked graphically beforehand. When the linearity between the quantitative variables and the CP QOL-Child score was not applicable, they were transformed into qualitative variables. Factors that were associated with changes in CP QOL-Child scores with a p < 0.20 were included in the model. After obtaining the final model, the conditions of normality, linearity and homoscedasticity of the residuals were verified. A significance level of 5% was set for all statistical tests performed.

Ethical considerations

This study design was approved by the Committee of Ethics of the Faculty of Medicine of Monastir Tunisia. We obtained written consent of the author of the validated Arabic version of the CP-QOL questionnaire. Also, free and informed written consent for participation and publication of the parents accompanying the child with CP was obtained after using forms detailing the purpose and modalities of participation. We ensured confidentiality by anonymous coding of the files that were kept in a specific binder. The study design was approved by the Committee of Ethics of the Faculty of Medicine of Monastir Tunisia.


Descriptive study

The parent caring for the child with CP who responded to our questionnaire was the mother 97.1% of the time. The age of the children varied between 4 and 12 years with a mean age of 7.99 (± 2.82). Gender ratio was 0.83. A total of 98.5% of the parents were living together. Only 4.4% of the included children with CP had no siblings. Mean siblings’ number was 2.12. Twenty-three children with CP (33.8%) had a brother or sister with disability. The VAS score ranged from 0 to 9 with a median of 0 and an interquartile range of 0–2.25. Seven children with CP or 9.8% of our population, had a SCARED score > 25, which indicates the presence of anxiety. The assessment of the quality of sleep in children with CP showed an average PSQI value of 6.75 (± 6.04). A total of 37.9% of the children with CP presented with sleep disturbance (PSQI > 5). A CDRS score of > 30 was indicative of clinical depression in 4.41% of the children with CP.

A total of 51 participating children with CP (75%) benefited from regular rehabilitation with a frequency of three sessions per week in 61.8% of cases. Difficulty in accessing functional rehabilitation was reported by 29.4% of participating parents. Only 8 children (11.8%) received speech therapy (Table 1).

TABLE 1: Biographical information of children with cerebral palsy and their families (N = 68).

The mean total CP QOL-Child score (CP-QOL total) was 59.3 (± 14.0). The means of the various domains measured are detailed in Table 2. The mean confidence of mothers in understanding their children’s feelings was 75.2 (± 21.2) (Table 2).

TABLE 2: Results of the cerebral palsy quality of life-child calculated in children with cerebral palsy.

Both versions of CP QOL-Child could be used in 10.3% of children.

No statistically significant differences were found when comparing the results of the CP-QOL child calculated from the self-administered and the proxy-reported versions Table 3.

TABLE 3: Comparison of the results of the cerebral palsy quality of life-child calculated from the two versions in children with cerebral palsy aged over 9 years with normal intellectual capacities and possible verbal communication.
Analytical study
Univariate study of the quality of life of children with cerebral palsy

Fathers working in the public sector had better CP-QOL total scores for their children (p = 0.042). In addition, the mean CP-QOL total was significantly higher in children integrated in kindergartens, mainstream schools or schools for learners with special educational needs compared with non-integrated children (p < 0.001).

Children with an intellectual disability had a significantly more altered QOL (p = 0.006). Cerebral palsy-Quality of Life total values were significantly higher in children with verbal communication (p ≤ 0.001). Children with CP who drool had significantly lower QOL than in absence of drooling (p ≤ 0.001). In contrast, the presence of swallowing disorders was not associated with a difference in CP QOL-Child scores (p ≤ 0.102). Cerebral palsy Quality of Life-Child scores in children with CP with vesico-sphincteric disorders were significantly lower than in the absence of these disorders (p ≤ 0.001).

The CP-QOL total was significantly higher in the hemiplegic form than in the diplegic form. The quadriplegic form of CP was associated with the most altered QOL (p < 0.001). Likewise, a significant difference between the CP-QOL total scores according to the GMFCS classification levels was found. The higher the GMFCS, the lower the total score of the CP-QOL questionnaire, indicating a more impaired QOL (p < 0.001). The intensity of chronic pain was also associated with a significant difference in QOL. In fact, the more intense the pain, the lower the scores, that is, the more the QOL is altered (p = 0.005). However, the spastic form was not associated with an alteration in QOL (p = 0.485). Furthermore, CP-QOL scores were significantly lower in children with CP who have sleeping disorders as revealed by the PSQI score (p = 0.042). Finally, no significant difference between CP-QOL total scores in children with CP who underwent different kinds of therapeutic interventions was found (Table 4).

TABLE 4: Relationship between quality of life in children with cerebral palsy and socio-demographic, economic, clinical and therapeutic information.
TABLE 4 (Continues...): Relationship between quality of life in children with cerebral palsy and socio-demographic, economic, clinical and therapeutic information.
Multivariate analysis

Factors integrated in the initial model of multiple linear regression were 18. The most influencing factors on the QOL of children with CP identified by our analyses were age over 6 years, the presence of swallowing disorders, the level of the motor impairment assessed by the GMFCS, the intensity of chronic pain and the use of botulinum toxin, which had a negative influence on the total CP-QOL score. In contrast, children with CP with sustained verbal communication had better QOL than those with little or no functional speech (Table 5).

TABLE 5: The predictive factors of quality of life of children with cerebral palsy objectified by cerebral palsy-quality of life total.


The mean score of the CP-QOL child in this study was lower than those found by most of the studies carried out in developed countries (Davis et al. 2010), but also in developing countries (Angreany et al. 2015; Atasavun Uysal et al. 2016; Braccialli et al. 2016; Power et al. 2018; Soleimani et al. 2015). Only one study using the Arabic version of the CP QOL-Child, which was carried out in Egypt, found lower values than in the study at hand (El-Weshahi et al. 2017) (Table 6).

TABLE 6: Comparative table of the means of total score of cerebral palsy quality of life questionnaire between the different studies in the literature.

This divergence could be explained by the sociocultural differences and the difference between the characteristics of the populations studied and the therapeutic behaviours. In fact, the predominant topographic distribution in our population was quadriplegia (58.8%), followed by hemiplegia (22%).

All areas of QOL are affected by CP. The best score was observed for the area of ‘Social welfare and acceptance’ (73 CI = [70.0; 78.0]). The area with the lowest score was the ‘Pain and feelings of disability’ (39 CI = [34.9; 43.3]). These same results were found by the various published studies. Also, CP affects the whole family as indicated in this study’s results with the low score around ‘Family health’ compared with other areas. Indeed, several studies that have evaluated the burden of this condition on caregivers have concluded that parents experience a difficult ordeal and see their mental, physical and psychological state affected by the presence of a disabled child in the family (Ben Salah Frih et al. 2010; Brehaut et al. 2004; Davis et al. 2010) (Table 7).

TABLE 7: Comparative tables of the means found in the literature in each of the domains of the cerebral palsy quality of life-child.

In children with CP for whom both versions could be used, the self-administered version completed by the child and the proxy-reported version completed by the parents, comparable results in the different domains, as well as for the CP-QOL total were found. These results were in agreement with the results of Waters et al. (2006). Thus, it can be concluded that in the presence of difficulties preventing the child from completing the questionnaire themselves, the parents’ responses offer a good estimate of the children’s QOL (Waters et al. 2006). It should also be observed that several studies using other scores found that children with CP report better QOL than reported by their parents because of the added anxiety and stress of the parent (Makris, Dorstyn & Crettenden 2019), hence the relevance of using both versions when possible, and the importance of completing the QOL assessment by referring to other stakeholders such as siblings, teachers, school friends and the healthcare team.

Ten factors were associated with QOL in children with CP. The identified factors can be classified according to the ICF in deficiencies of the organic functions (intellectual or speech deficit, drooling, vesico-sphincteric disorders, the intensity of the pain and the topographic form of the injury), limitation of activities (GMFCS score), restriction of participation (school integration), personal factors (sleep disorders) and environmental factors (father’s profession). These results encourage clinicians to investigate further all aspects of the bio-psycho-social model for they have a quantifiable repercussion on QOL. The multiplicity of these factors reflects the complexity of the initial assessment and the need for multidisciplinary management.

Six predictive factors for QOL were found, namely age, verbal communication, intellectual disability, motor impairment, pain intensity and the use of botulinum toxin. This model did not contain socio-demographic and economic factors, which is in line with the results found in 2017 by Rappas part of the SPARCLE study (Thorley et al. 2012) where a longitudinal study of QOL measured by KIDSCREEN among adolescents with CP was conducted. On the other hand, they did not find a predictive value for motor impairment. This divergence is explained by the difference in target populations and measurement tools. A recent study carried out in Bangladesh using the CP-QOL Teens, published results similar to the study in hand (Power et al. 2020). The multiplicity of factors associated with QOL reported by this study and in the literature, requires us to be vigilant in interpreting the results.

Language disorders were a predictive factor for a lowered QOL. These results have been reported in the literature by several studies (Dobhal et al. 2014; Mezgebe et al. 2015; Power et al. 2020). They highlight the value of speech therapy, augmentative and alternative communication strategies and tools in improving QOL. A future study with this focus might highlight the human rights of children with CP when using assistive devices and technology for communication.

Consistent with the results of the studies of the SPARCLE project (Arnaud et al. 2008; Dickinson et al. 2007), a significant negative association between the intensity of pain and the QOL in child CP was found. It was among the predictors of QOL. In fact, the more intense the pain was, the more the QOL was altered. These results are consistent with the literature (Fairhurst et al. 2019; Mckinnon et al. 2019; Parkinson et al. 2013; Penner et al. 2013; Radsel, Osredkar & Neubauer 2016; Ramstad et al. 2011). Some authors using different measuring instruments from ours came to the same conclusions (Cristina et al. 2017; Schmidt et al. 2006). Indeed, it was shown through research published in 2016 that the presence of pain and the age of the child with CP explained approximately 14% of the variation in QOL (Findlay et al. 2016). The negative impact of pain on participation was explained by the fact that the discomfort caused by pain increases the rate of school absenteeism and results in restriction of participation in daily activities and family activities, leading children with CP to spend more days in bed (Houlihan et al. 2004).

Analyses showed that the higher the level of motor impairment according to the GMFCS, the lower the CP-QOL total. This joins several studies on the subject (Khare & Prajapati 2013; Pashmdarfard et al. 2017; Puspitasari, Rusmil & Gurnida 2013). According to the literature, the greater the motor impairment of these children, the more their autonomy in carrying out activities of daily living is limited, which largely explains poor QOL for physical health (Badia et al. 2014). This motor disability can lead to physical discomfort and difficulty in establishing relationships with other children (Arnaud et al. 2008). In addition, motor disability exposes them to restriction of their participation as an active member of family, school and community (Kerr, Mcdowell & Mcdonough 2007; Mei et al. 2014). Indeed, it was shown that their participation in physical and leisure activities is significantly reduced compared with children with normal development (Carlon et al. 2012).

This study highlights the benefit of a comprehensive assessment of children with CP, their family and environment in order to construct accurate estimates of their QOL. These findings also help stratify factors that could have an impact on QOL and subsequently helps in developing levels of intervention. In addition, the study in hand is based on the integration of the theoretical model of the ICF that offers a more exhaustive understanding of the experience of the child with CP. This study’s sample is heterogeneous because the authors were interested in all the clinical forms of the disease providing a realistic vision of this condition. The results from the study in hand are consistent with the relevant literature, which contributes to a greater external validity. In addition, the use of the CP QOL-Child, a specific validated measurement instrument for the QOL of children with CP, increases the credibility of the results. For medical practice, this study highlights the imperative of adopting a multidimensional approach, taking into account all bio-psycho-social aspects in the treatment of children with CP.

However, this study has some limitations. The limited sample does not allow for generalisation to the entire population of children with CP because only children who benefited from adequate care in a specialised centre were included, which is not always the case in Tunisian children with CP. This research is based on a transversal quantitative approach that can only paint a static picture of the experience of children with CP. Therefore, a longitudinal layout that follows the dynamic and evolving nature of QOL of these children and the various factors involved is better suited for this assessment. At the same time, the quantitative measurement of QOL alone does not fully describe the complexity of the experience of children with CP.


Children with CP experience QOL alteration affecting every domain. Therefore, intervention with children with CP must be aware of their experience and rely on a thorough assessment of their QOL that is adapted to their family setting and cultural context. The multiplicity of the factors associated with QOL revealed by this study incites clinicians to adopt the ICF approach by displaying its practical implications on the efficiency of the medical intervention. Five out of the six predictive factors of QOL are modifiable through a multidisciplinary approach within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health classification of functioning (ICF). Namely, swallowing and language disorders can be treated with dedicated orthophonic sessions and specific interventions, the level of motor impairment and the intensity of chronic pain can be improved through a global approach including multiple medical and non-medical interventions.


Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationships that may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article.

Authors’ contributions

G.M., S.M., E.T., T.M., W.W., K.M. and S.J. contributed to the study’s conception, design, data collection, data analysis, result interpretation, manuscript writing, manuscript correction, proofreading, manuscript submission and funding aquisition.

Funding information

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Data availability

The data sets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author, M.G., on reasonable request.


The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of any affiliated agency of the authors.


Angreany, D., Saing, J.H., Deliana, M. & Dimyati, Y., 2015, ‘Comparison of the quality of life in cerebral palsy children with physical therapy more and less than 10 months’, Paediatrica Indonesiana 55(5), 287–292.

Arnaud, C., White-Koning, M., Michelsen, S.I., Parkes, J., Parkinson, K., Thyen, U. et al., 2008, ‘Parent-reported quality of life of children with cerebral palsy in Europe’, Pediatrics 121(1), 54–64. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-0854

Atasavun Uysal, S., Düger, T., Elbasan, B., Karabulut, E. & Toylan, İ., 2016, ‘Reliability and validity of the cerebral palsy quality of life questionnaire in the Turkish population’, Perceptual and Motor Skills 122(1), 150–164. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031512515625388

Badia, M., Riquelme, I., Orgaz, B., Acevedo, R., Longo, E. & Montoya, P., 2014, ‘Pain, motor function and health-related quality of life in children with cerebral palsy as reported by their physiotherapists’, BMC Pediatrics 14, 192. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-14-192

Ben Salah Frih, Z., Boudoukhane, S., Jellad, A., Salah, S. & Rejeb, N., 2010, ‘Qualité de vie des parents d’enfant atteint de paralysie cérébrale’, Journal de Réadaptation Médicale : Pratique et Formation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation 30(1), 18–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrm.2010.01.001

Braccialli, L.M.P., Silva, M.Z., Braccialli, A.C., Sankako, A.N. & Araújo, R.d.C.T., 2016, ‘Impact of school participation on quality of life of Brazilian children with cerebral palsy’, International Journal on Disability and Human Development 15(1), 23–27. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijdhd-2014-0024

Brehaut, J.C., Kohen, D.E., Raina, P., Walter, S.D., Russell, D.J., Swinton, M. et al., 2004, ‘The health of primary caregivers of children with cerebral palsy : How does it compare with that of other Canadian caregivers?’, Pediatrics 114(2), e182–191. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.114.2.e182

Carlon, S., Taylor, N., Dodd, K. & Shields, N., 2012, ‘Differences in habitual physical activity levels of young people with cerebral palsy and their typically developing peers: A systematic review’, Disability and Rehabilitation 35(8), 647–655. https://doi.org/10.3109/09638288.2012.715721

Cristina, K., Bueno Perina, K., Pereira, D., Assis, D., Cassia, F., Reis, T. et al., 2017, ‘Evaluate of pain, motor function and quality of life in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy’, International Journal of Applied Research 3, 753–756.

Davis, E., Shelly, A., Waters, E. & Davern, M., 2010, ‘Measuring the quality of life of children with cerebral palsy : Comparing the conceptual differences and psychometric properties of three instruments: Comparing Three Quality of Life Instruments’, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 52(2), 174–180. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03382.x

Dickinson, H.O., Parkinson, K.N., Ravens-Sieberer, U., Schirripa, G., Thyen, U., Arnaud, C. et al., 2007, ‘Self-reported quality of life of 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy: A cross-sectional European study’, Lancet (London, England) 369(9580), 2171–2178. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61013-7

Dobhal, M., Juneja, M., Jain, R., Sairam, S. & Thiagarajan, D., 2014, ‘Health-related quality of life in children with cerebral palsy and their families’, Indian Pediatrics 51(5), 385–387. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13312-014-0414-z

El-Weshahi, H.M.T., Mohamed, M.K., Abd-Elghany, H.M., Omar, T.E.I. & Azzawi, A.E., 2017, ‘Psychometric properties of a translated arabic version of cerebral palsy-quality of life questionnaire: Primary caregiver form’, Alexandria Journal of Pediatrics 30(2), 53. https://doi.org/10.4103/AJOP.AJOP_15_17

Fairhurst, C., Shortland, A., Chandler, S., Will, E., Scrutton, D., Simonoff, E. et al., 2019, ‘Factors associated with pain in adolescents with bilateral cerebral palsy’, Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 61(8), 929–936. https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.14113

Findlay, B., Switzer, L., Narayanan, U., Chen, S. & Fehlings, D., 2016, ‘Investigating the impact of pain, age, Gross Motor Function Classification System, and sex on health-related quality of life in children with cerebral palsy’, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 58(3), 292–297. https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.12936

Galea, C., Mcintyre, S., Smithers-Sheedy, H., Reid, S.M., Gibson, C., Delacy, M. et al., 2019, ‘Cerebral palsy trends in Australia (1995–2009) : A population-based observational study’, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 61(2), 186–193. https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.14011

Gladstone, M., 2010, ‘A review of the incidence and prevalence, types and aetiology of childhood cerebral palsy in resource-poor settings’, Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 30(3), 181–196. https://doi.org/10.1179/146532810X12786388978481

Hariz, N., Bawab, S., Atwi, M., Tavitian, L., Zeinoun, P., Khani, M. et al., 2013, ‘Reliability and validity of the Arabic Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a clinical sample’, Psychiatry Research 209(2), 222–228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2012.12.002

Houlihan, C., O’Donnell, M., Conaway, M. & Stevenson, R., 2004, ‘Bodily pain and health-related quality of life in children with cerebral palsy’, Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 46(5), 305–310. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2004.tb00490.x

Kerr, C., Mcdowell, B. & Mcdonough, S., 2007, ‘The relationship between gross motor function and participation restriction in children with cerebral palsy: An exploratory analysis. Child: Care, Health and Development 33(1), 22–27. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2006.00634.x

Khare, D. & Prajapati, A., 2013, ‘Correlation of gross motor function with quality of life in cerebral palsy children of Madhya Pradesh, India’, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) 5(8), 3.

Kuyken, W., Orley, J.H., Power, M., Herrman, H., Schofield, H.L., Murphy, B.M. et al., 1995, ‘The World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL): Position paper from the World Health Organization’, Social Science & Medicine 41(10), 1403–1409. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(95)00112-k

Maenner, M.J., Blumberg, S.J., Kogan, M.D., Christensen, D., Yeargin-Allsopp, M. & Schieve, L.A., 2016, ‘Prevalence of cerebral palsy and intellectual disability among children identified in two U.S. National Surveys, 2011–2013’, Annals of Epidemiology 26(3), 222–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2016.01.001

Makris, T., Dorstyn, D. & Crettenden, A., 2019, ‘Quality of life in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy : A systematic review with meta-analysis’, Disability and Rehabilitation 43(3), 299–308. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2019.1623852

Mckinnon, C.T., Meehan, E.M., Harvey, A.R., Antolovich, G.C. & Morgan, P.E., 2019, ‘Prevalence and characteristics of pain in children and young adults with cerebral palsy: A systematic review’, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 61(3), 305–314. https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.14111

Mei, C., Reilly, S., Reddihough, D., Mensah, F. & Morgan, A., 2014, ‘Motor speech impairment, activity, and participation in children with cerebral palsy’, International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 16(4), 427–435. https://doi.org/10.3109/17549507.2014.917439

Meucci, P., Leonardi, M., Sala, M., Martinuzzi, A., Russo, E., Buffoni, M. et al., 2014, ‘A survey on feasibility of ICF-CY use to describe persisting difficulties in executing tasks and activities of children and adolescent with disability in Italy’, Disability and Health Journal 7(4), 433–441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2014.05.006

Mezgebe, M., Akhtar-Danesh, G.-G., Streiner, D.L., Fayed, N., Rosenbaum, P.L. & Ronen, G.M., 2015, ‘Quality of life in children with epilepsy : How does it compare with the quality of life in typical children and children with cerebral palsy?’, Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B 52(Pt A), 239–243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.09.009

Narayanan, U.G., Fehlings, D., Weir, S., Knights, S., Kiran, S. & Campbell, K., 2006, ‘Initial development and validation of the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (CPCHILD)’, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 48(10), 804.

Parkinson, K.N., Dickinson, H.O., Arnaud, C., Lyons, A., Colver, A. & SPARCLE Group, 2013, ‘Pain in young people aged 13 to 17 years with cerebral palsy : Cross-sectional, multicentre European study’, Archives of Disease in Childhood 98(6), 434–440. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2012-303482

Pashmdarfard, M., Amini, M., Badv, R.S., Ghaffarzade Namazi, N. & Rassafiani, M., 2017, ‘Does parent report gross motor function level of cerebral palsy children impact on the quality of life in these children?’, Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 11(4), 52–57.

Penner, M., Xie, W.Y., Binepal, N., Switzer, L. & Fehlings, D., 2013, ‘Characteristics of pain in children and youth with cerebral palsy’, Pediatrics 132(2), e407–e413. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-0224

Power, R., Galea, C., Muhit, M., Heanoy, E., Karim, T., Badawi, N. et al., 2020, ‘What predicts the proxy-reported health-related quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy in Bangladesh?’, BMC Public Health 20(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-8130-1

Power, R., King, C., Muhit, M., Heanoy, E., Galea, C., Jones, C. et al., 2018, ‘Health-related quality of life of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review’, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 60(5), 469–479. https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.13681

Puspitasari, M., Rusmil, K. & Gurnida, D., 2013, ‘The relationship between gross motor function and quality of life among children with cerebral palsy’, Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal 24(4), 57–68. https://doi.org/10.5463/DCID.v24i4.243

Radsel, A., Osredkar, D. & Neubauer, D., 2016, ‘Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy’, Slovenian Journal of Public Health 56(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1515/sjph-2017-0001

Ramstad, K., Jahnsen, R., Skjeldal, O.H. & Diseth, T.H., 2011, ‘Characteristics of recurrent musculoskeletal pain in children with cerebral palsy aged 8 to 18 years’, Developmental Medicine &; Child Neurology 53(11), 1013–1018. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.04070.x

Ravens-Sieberer, U., Gosch, A., Rajmil, L., Erhart, M., Bruil, J., Duer, W. et al., 2005, ‘KIDSCREEN-52 quality-of-life measure for children and adolescents’, Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research 5(3), 353–364. https://doi.org/10.1586/14737167.5.3.353

Rosenbaum, P., Paneth, N., Leviton, A., Goldstein, M., Bax, M., Damiano, D. et al., 2007, ‘A report : The definition and classification of cerebral palsy April 2006’, Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. Supplement 109, 8–14.

Schiariti, V., Klassen, A.F., Cieza, A., Sauve, K., O’Donnell, M., Armstrong, R. et al., 2014, ‘Comparing contents of outcome measures in cerebral palsy using the international classification of functioning (ICF-CY) : A systematic review’, European Journal of Paediatric Neurology 18(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2013.08.001

Schmidt, S., Debensason, D., Mühlan, H., Petersen, C., Power, M., Simeoni, M.C. et al., 2006, ‘The DISABKIDS generic quality of life instrument showed cross-cultural validity’, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 59(6), 587–598. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2005.09.012

Schneider, J.W., Gurucharri, L.M., Gutierrez, A.L. & Gaebler-Spira, D.J., 2007, ‘Health-related quality of life and functional outcome measures for children with cerebral palsy’, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 43(9), 601–608. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2001.tb00242.x

Serdarog, A., 2006, ‘Prevalence of cerebral palsy in Turkish children between the ages of 2 and 16 years’, Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 48(6), 413–416.

Soleimani, F., Vameghi, R., Kazemnejad, A., Akbar Fahimi, N., Nobakht, Z. & Rassafiani, M., 2015, ‘Psychometric properties of the Persian version of cerebral palsy quality of life questionnaire for children’, Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 9(1), 76–86.

Suleiman, K., Hadid, L.A. & Duhni, A., 2012, ‘Psychometric testing of the Arabic version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (A-PSQI) among coronary artery disease patients in Jordan’, Journal of Natural Sciences Research 2, 15–19.

Thorley, M., Donaghey, S., Edwards, P., Copeland, L., Kentish, M., McLennan, K. et al., 2012, ‘Evaluation of the effects of botulinum toxin A injections when used to improve ease of care and comfort in children with cerebral palsy whom are non-ambulant : A double blind randomized controlled trial’, BMC Pediatrics 12, 120. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-12-120

Varni, J.W., Burwinkle, T.M., Berrin, S.J., Sherman, S.A., Artavia, K., Malcarne, V.L. et al., 2006, ‘The PedsQL in pediatric cerebral palsy: Reliability, validity, and sensitivity of the Generic Core Scales and Cerebral Palsy Module’, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 48(06), 442.

Wang, X. & Cheng, Z., 2020, ‘Cross-sectional studies: Strengths, weaknesses, and recommendations’, Chest 158(1S), S65–S71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.03.012

Waters, E., Boyd, R. & Reddihough, D., 2013, Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire for Children (CP QOL-Child) Manual, University of Melbourne, Melbourne.

Waters, E., Davis, E., Mackinnon, A., Boyd, R., Graham, H.K., Kai Lo, S. et al., 2006, ‘Psychometric properties of the quality of life questionnaire for children with CP’, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 49(1), 49–55. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0012162207000126.x

Waters, E., Davis, E., Ronen, G.M., Rosenbaum, P., Livingston, M. & Saigal, S., 2009, ‘Quality of life instruments for children and adolescents with neurodisabilities: How to choose the appropriate instrument’, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 51(8), 660–669. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03324.x

Crossref Citations

No related citations found.