Original Research

The development and evaluation of content validity of the Zambia Spina Bifida Functional Measure: Preliminary studies

Margaret M. Mweshi, Seyi L. Amosun, Mary P. Shilalukey-Ngoma, Esther Munalula-Nkandu, Zuhayr Kafaar
African Journal of Disability | Vol 6 | a264 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ajod.v6i0.264 | © 2017 Margaret M. Mweshi, Seyi L. Amosun, Mary P. Shilalukey-Ngoma, Esther Munalula-Nkandu, Zuhayr Kafaar | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 03 February 2016 | Published: 24 July 2017

About the author(s)

Margaret M. Mweshi, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Zambia
Seyi L. Amosun, Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Mary P. Shilalukey-Ngoma, Department of Paediatric & Child Health, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Zambia
Esther Munalula-Nkandu, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Zambia
Zuhayr Kafaar, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa


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Abstract

Background: Very little is known on outcome measures for children with spina bifida (SB) in Zambia. If rehabilitation professionals managing children with SB in Zambia and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa are to instigate measuring outcomes routinely, a tool has to be made available. The main objective of this study was to develop an appropriate and culturally sensitive instrument for evaluating the impact of the interventions on children with SB in Zambia.
Methods: A mixed design method was used for the study. Domains were identified retrospectively and confirmation was done through a systematic review study. Items were generated through semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Qualitative data were downloaded, translated into English, transcribed verbatim and presented. These were then placed into categories of the main domains of care deductively through the process of manifest content analysis. Descriptive statistics, alpha coefficient and index of content validity were calculated using SPSS.
Results: Self-care, mobility and social function were identified as main domains, while participation and communication were sub-domains. A total of 100 statements were generated and 78 items were selected deductively. An alpha coefficient of 0.98 was computed and experts judged the items.
Conclusions: The new functional measure with an acceptable level of content validity titled Zambia Spina Bifida Functional Measure (ZSBFM) was developed. It was designed to evaluate effectiveness of interventions given to children with SB from the age of 6 months to 5 years. Psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity were tested and are reported in another study.

Keywords

Spina Bifida; Instrument development; Psychometrics; Physiotherapy; Zambia

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